Glaucoma is a term that has long been associated with being one of the most common causes of complete blindness in the world’s population. Glaucoma is a disorder related with diabetes, thus those with high blood sugar levels are more prone to get it. However, whether or not a person is diabetic, various inherited factors have a role in the development of glaucoma.
Glaucoma is a complicated disease caused by a combination of inherited and environmental causes. It is the leading cause of lifelong blindness globally. The disorder has been related to a variety of genes and polymorphisms, and the inheritance pattern that can vary.
The most common Mendelian variants of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) are caused by mutations in the myocilin (MYOC) gene, which affect 2–4% of POAG patients. 2 Recently, genetic research has assisted in the finding of novel disease-related loci, notably through genome-wide association analysis.
Mutations in genes occur in different ways
SIX1/SIX6, TXNRD2, ATXN2, FOXC1, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, AFAP1, GMDS, and over 100 genomic sites are now known to be associated with POAG vulnerability at a genome-wide level of significance (e.g., SIX1/SIX6, TXNRD2, ATXN2, FOXC1, TMCO1, CDKN2B-AS1, ABCA1, AFAP However, each influence may be minor, and when combined, they only account for a small part of POAG heritability.
POAG risk variables such as intraocular pressure (IOP) and cup-to-disc ratio have been linked to a large number of genetic loci. Many of these loci have no known association with POAG, therefore it’s unclear what role they play in the disease.
Exfoliation glaucoma is widespread in a variety of populations, which might imply a hereditary basis. New genetic loci (CACNA1A, FLT1-POMP, TMEM136-ARHGEF12, AGPAT1, RBMS3, SEMA6A) have recently been associated with an increased risk of exfoliation syndrome.
LOXL1 gene variants, however, do not help in identifying patients with exfoliation who are at higher risk of developing glaucoma. Genetic factors that influence the development of different types of glaucoma
- Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) is the most common kind of glaucoma that affects people. According to studies, POAG is caused by mutations in genes such as myocilin, optineurin, and CYP1B1, despite the fact that it affects less than 10% of the world’s population.
- PCAG (Primary Closed Angle Glaucoma) is the second most common kind of glaucoma, affecting about 16 million people globally. Mutations in genes like PLEKHA7, PCMTD1/ST18, and COL11A1 cause PCAG.
- Glaucoma is a disease that affects people of all ages, not only the elderly. In rare cases, it can even affect young toddlers. According to research, PCG disease, which causes juvenile blindness, is more common in the Middle East and Central Europe. PCG is caused by mutations in the CYP1B1 gene, according to Studies
GLAUCOMA IS DESCRIBED AS
Glaucoma can be classified into two types:
- Angle-closure glaucoma :- This kind develops when an individual’s iris is very close to their eye’s drainage angle. The iris has the capability of blocking the drainage angle. Consider it like a piece of paper falling into the sewer. Ocular pressure rises quickly when the drainage angle is completely blocked. An acute attack is what this is called. It’s a true eye emergency, and you should see an ophthalmologist right away or risk losing your sight.
Acute angle-closure glaucoma is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Your vision has become abnormally blurry
- You’re experiencing a headache.
- You are ill to your guts (nausea)
- Rainbow-colored circles or halos may well not be visible around lights.
Many people have angle-closure glaucoma over time. Persistent angle-closure glaucoma is the medical term for it. Individuals do not realize they have it until it is too late or they are affected, because there are no symptoms at first.
Angle-closure glaucoma can cause blindness if it is not treated soon.
- Primary open-angle glaucoma:- This is the most common type of glaucoma. It develops over time when the eye does not drain fluid as efficiently as it should (like a clogged drain). As a result, the ocular pressure increases, putting the optic nerve in jeopardy. This type of glaucoma is painless and causes no vision problems at first.
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Certain people’s optic nerves may be sensitive to normal eye pressure. This makes them more likely to acquire glaucoma. Detecting early signs of optic nerve damage requires regular eye examinations.
THE GLAUCOMA TREATMENTS AVAILABLE
Eye Drops are commonly used to treat glaucoma. These eye drops are intended to relieve ocular pressure on a regular basis. Some people do this by reducing the amount of aqueous fluid generated by the eye. Others alleviate pressure by increasing the flow of fluid through the drainage angle.
Every medicine has the potential for side effects. When some drugs are combined with others, they might cause problems. It is vital to submit a list of all drugs you use on a daily basis to your doctor. Consult your ophthalmologist if you feel you’re having side effects from your glaucoma treatment.
Always visit your ophthalmologist before changing or stopping your glaucoma medications. Consult your ophthalmologist about having your prescription refilled if you are about to run out of medication.
LASER SURGERIES AVAILABLE
Glaucoma can be treated with one of two types of laser surgery. They aid in the drainage of aqueous out of the eye. These operations are often performed in an ophthalmologist’s clinic or an outpatient surgery centre.
- Iridotomy:- This is for those who have angle-closure glaucoma. With the aid of a laser, the ophthalmologist creates a small hole in the iris. Liquids are sent to the drainage angle through this aperture.
- Trabeculoplasty:- This treatment can be used instead of or in addition to medications for patients with open-angle glaucoma. In this procedure, the drainage angle is adjusted by a laser. This allows for proper fluid drainage and decreases ocular pressure.
Sharp Sight Centre, Best eye hospital in Delhi, Patna and Srinagar, India, strives to reveal glaucoma discoveries based on zillions of studies conducted by some of the most well-known names in the eye care healthcare industry.
Genetics, according to these studies, has a considerable impact on the activation and exacerbation of all major forms of glaucoma in a person. Thanks to breakthroughs in technology and science, scientists have been able to lift the veil on the multiple genetics at work in a person’s body that lead to the development of a specific kind of glaucoma.
Indeed, numerous notable concepts and research projects have successfully addressed some of the primary glaucoma difficulties in recent years.