The Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids without the aid of modern technology. Despite conspiracy theories that aliens may have helped them build the pyramids, the construction of these monuments was possible without the help of advanced technology. Today, the Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the World that still stands.
The pyramids were built to house the tombs of pharaohs. The Egyptians believed that life after death was just the beginning of another world. Because of this, the tombs of the pharaohs were of paramount importance to the entire kingdom. This is why the pharaohs built pyramids and used Tura limestone as the outer casing. Read here but this awesome new character based out of Egyptian Mythology known as Ankha Zone.
The large, square base of the pyramid created an extremely stable structure. Moreover, the corners of the pyramid were aligned with the cardinal points. Most of the building materials were used in the lower part of the pyramid, while relatively few blocks were hauled up to the upper levels. Pyramid construction was a marvel of engineering and science.
Many believe that the pyramids were built by slaves, but new discoveries have disproved this myth. Recent discoveries near Giza, Egypt’s largest and most famous pyramid complex, show that the pyramids were not built by slaves. Archeologists have found tombs of Egyptian nobles dating back to the 4th dynasty, which ruled from 2575 to 2467 BCE. These tombs were relatively modest, with shafts nine feet high. The bodies were not mummified, which means that they were not slaves.
However, ancient sources claim that slave labor was used to construct the pyramids. Herodotus says that Egyptian officials forced as many as 100,000 Egyptians to work on the pyramids at Giza. Other sources claim that Hebrew slaves built the pyramids. The Book of Exodus describes Hebrew slaves making bricks, while Josephus claims that Hebrew slaves worked as pyramid builders.
This is an extreme and implausible hypothesis, but there is no proof that the pyramids were built by slaves. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that shows that Egyptian workers were able to perform the task. In the 1990s, archeologists began excavating the cemeteries around the pyramid and found hundreds of tombs of high religious and political officials, as well as construction overseers and artisans. These tombs were discovered near the entrance to the necropolis, and they are believed to be over 4,500 years old.
The Egyptians did not have access to strong trees that would have been strong enough to lift the massive stone blocks that make up the pyramids. The average weight of each stone block was about 2.5 tons. Hence, wooden cranes would likely break before they could lift even one block. However, they could have made use of pulleys to lift blocks up ramps and manipulate them into place. The use of pulleys was already common on ships at the time.
Originally, the pyramids were built with tiers and steps. These tiers were erected one on top of another. For each tier, workmen used levers, preferably made of short wooden logs. The first tier was made of blocks that were heaved up from the ground. Then, a workman would set the stone on the lever and lift it to the next tier. Each subsequent tier required a new lever, or a portable one.
In addition to this, the Egyptians used wooden cranes to raise water from the Nile. Ancient tomb paintings also show wooden crane-like devices. Wooden cranes could also have been used by the pyramid builders. However, they would have required an enormous amount of lumber. This would have meant importing large timbers from Lebanon.
Stones hauled out of a quarry
The pyramids of Giza are made from limestone, which is a common rock in the area south of Thebes. The ancient Egyptians used pre-cut stone that was hauled from a quarry and used for construction. Limestone is also a natural stone found on cliffs bordering the Nile. Unlike today, however, the quarries for limestone extraction were defined and exact, so the builders didn’t try to gather stones from every available source.
The quarry was not rectangular, so its floor sloped up to the north. The southern outlet, though, disappeared under a sand-filled wadi. In addition, ancient quarrymen had to waste a certain amount of rock during the channeling process. Some scholars estimate that up to 30% of the rock was discarded.
Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids using a ramp system that raised stone blocks hundreds of feet off the ground. They hauled them up using ropes attached to wooden posts. When they had finished building one tier, they would move on to the next tier by using a new lever.
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